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...

:


: ( )

: a, the.

a :

a , : a boy, a pen

an , (a/ e / i / o / u): an apple, an economist

a/an

,

(milk, oil, music, money).

a/an,

(, ) .

This is a lamp.

Have you got a sister or a brother?

the , .

the () .. , , , .

Open the door , please.

Usually we do not say the + names of places:

France is a very large country.

But we say the + republic / states / kingdom:

The United States of America

Usually we do not say the + names of streets, squares etc..:

Kevin lives in Coronation Street.

We do not say the + name of place + airport / station / university / castle :

Munich Airport

Paddington Station

But we usually say the + names of hotels / restaurants / pubs / cinemas / theatres / museums:

The Hilton Hotel
The national Theatre
The Tate Gallery

We say the + names of oceans / seas / rivers / canals:

the Atlantic Ocean

The Nile

We say the + names with ... of ...:

the Republic of Ireland

the Tower of London

the north / south / east / west / middle of

Ive been to the north of Italy but not to the south.

We say the + plural names of countries / islands / mountains:

the Netherlands

the Canary Islands

:

1. a/an the.

1 I wrote to her but ..the.. letter never arrived.

2 Britain is ..an... island.

3 What is ........ name of this village?

4 Jane is ........ very nice person. You must meet her.

5 Montreal is ........ large city in Canada.

6 What is ........ largest city in Canada?

7 'What time is it?' 1 don't know. I haven't got ........ watch.'

8 When I went to Rome, I stayed with ........ Italian friend of mine.

9 You look very tired. You need ........ holiday.

10 Don't sit on ........ floor. It's very dirty.

11 'Let's go to ........ restaurant this evening.'

'That's ........ good idea. Which restaurant shall we go to?'

12 Can you turn on ........ radio, please? I want to listen to some music.

13 Tom is in ........ bathroom. He's having ........ bath.

14 This is a nice room, but I don't like ........ colour of........ carpet.

15 We live in ........ old house near ........ station. It's two miles from ........ centre.

2.   . . 'The'.

Alps Amazon Atlantic Bahamas Cairo Kenya Red Sea Asia Andes Pacific Malta Rhine Switzerland Tokyo United States

1 ..Cairo....................... is the capital of Egypt.

2 ...The Atlantic........... is between Africa and America.

3 .................................. is a country in the middle of Europe.

4 .................................. is a river in South America.

5 .................................. is the largest continent in the world.

6 .................................. is the largest ocean.

7 .................................. is a river in Europe.

8 .................................. is between Canada and Mexico.

9 .................................. is in East Africa.

10 ................................ are mountains in South America.

11 ................................ is the capital of Japan.

12 ................................ is an island in the Mediterranean.

13 ................................ are mountains in central Europe.

14 ................................ is between Saudi Arabia and Africa.

15 ................................ are a group of islands near Florida.

3. :

Come and look at this picture.

This isnt a very good party.

These grapes are not very sweet.

This is my friend Paula.

(on the phone) This is Ann.

What is that on the wall?

He is ill. Thats why hes away.

Stop that noise!

Thanks - that was a great dinner.

(on the phone) Who is that?

Do you remember those people we met in Scotland?

4. :

This is a king. That is an egg.

This is a boy. That is a window.

This is a shilling. That is a prince.

This is a cup. That is a waiter.

This is a flower. That is a star.

This is a man. That is a n eye.

This is a train. That is a child.

This is an aeroplane. That is a picture.

 

5. this, that, these, those.

Why are you living .... country?

Get me ... box from the table.

What was .... noise?

Come ... way, please.

Who are .... people over there?

Who said ...?

Isnt .... girl nice?

I cant write with ... pens.

How could she marry ... idiot!

6. :

There are no grapes in the market.

There will be rain tonight.

There is snow on the mountains.

There are two men at the door.

Once upon a time there were three pigs.

There are many cars in the street.

7.   there is (there isnt)

.... no water on the moon.

.... no TVs in the 15th century.

Once upon a time .... a beautiful princess.

Tomorrow ..... snow.

.... some soup, if you are hungry.

.... any potatoes?

.... an accident/ can I phone?

I am afraid ... time to see Grandmother.

.... many tigers in the jungle.

 

 

8.   there is it is:

... . a cat in your bedroom.

..... not easy to understand him.

..... cold tonight.

..... ice on the roads.

..... nice to see you.

..... somebody on the phone for you.

.... a problem with TV.

.... too late to go out.

.... a funny film on the video.

Whats that noise? - ... the wind.

:

, .- Where there is a will, there is a way.

. There is no smoke without a fire.

( ) There is no use crying over spilt milk.

 

4

Present Simple Tense ( )

We use the present simple tense for things we do regularly, always, sometimes, every day, etc. ( , , , ).

Positive ( )

I live in London.

We live in London.

You live in London.

They live in London.

He lives in London.

She Lives in London.

It lives in London too.

The question, short answer and negative are made with the present tense of the verbs do, does (, do, does).

Negative ( )

I do not live in Moscow.

We do not live in Moscow.

You do not live in Moscow.

They do not live in Moscow.

He does not live in Moscow.

She does not live in Moscow

It does not live in Moscow

Question ()

Where do I live?

Where do you live?

Where do we live?

Where do they live?

Where does he live? Where does she live? Where does it live?

Yes/No questions ( Yes No.

Do I live in Paris? Do we live in Paris? Do they live in Paris? Do you live in Paris?

Does he live in Paris? Does she live in Paris? Does it live in Paris?

Ansswers ( ).

Yes, I do. No, I dont.

Yes, he does. No, he doesnt.

Question words ( ).

How do you travel to work? (, )

How long does the journey take? ( , ,)

How many people travel by bus? ( )

How often does Joy see Janet? ( )

What time do you have lunch? ( , )

When does Joy arrive? ( )

:

is a businessman, isn't he? They are businessmen, aren't they?

You speak English, don't you? He speaks English, doesn't he? They spoke about it, didn't they?

I have done this work, haven't I? He'll do this work, won't he? He can do this work, can't he? He is going to do it, isn't he?

He isn't a businessman, is he?

They aren't businessmen, are

they?

You don't speak English, do you?

He doesn't speak English, does he?

They didn't speak about it, did

they?

I haven't done this work, have I?

He won't do this work, will he?

He cannot do this work, can he?

He isn't going to do it, is he?

IMPERATIVES ( )

Speak English, please. Dont speak English please.

Look in the mirror before you drive off.

Have some more tea.

Please do not lean out of the window.

Try again.

Cheer up.

Dont worry.

Dont sign the document.

Do be quiet!

Dont be silly!

Lets have a drink.

Lets meet at 10.30.

 

5

MODAL VERBS

CAN, MAY, MUST

,

1) to:

I can do it myself.

2) :

Can you do it yourself? You can not do it yourself.

3) s:

He can play piano.

can , .

must , :

You must keep the rule.

may , , .

You may come in.

They may return tomorrow.

should , , , c .

We should protect the planet.

have to , , , .

Politicians have to make speeches.

 

1. , ( ) , :

hear, listen, speak French, play golf, make, sing, dance, swim, talk, work, drive, jump, ride a horse, translate, cook.

2. :

Can you speak Japanese? - Yes, _______

Will you bring your friend? - Yes, ______

Could Tom find his glasses? - No , ______

Should the children come home early? - Yes, ______

May I sit here?- No, ____

Can ducks swim under water? - Yes ____

Can you remember their phone number? - No, _____

3.., , :

Get up early, make breakfast, go to work, go to school, make a telephone call,

buy some food, write to, invite guests, visit a dentist/

 

4. , , ( might)

go to the cinema stay at home

listen to music do some washing

have dinner at home go to a restaurant

watch TV read a magazine

go to bed early play at the computer

:

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4. . .(cut it down)

5. . , .

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7. 5 .

8. .

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5. .

6. - . - .

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14. . .

3. :

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6. , .

7. , - .

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11. ?

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18. --.

19. . - . , .

20. ?

21. .

VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE

I WANT YOU TO DO IT

( ߠ , )

I want you to be happy.

He wants me to go to the bank.

She wants him to pay the bill.

We also use the structure Verb+ somebody + to with:

advise, expect, ask, tell, force, invite, warn, mean, allow, forbid, need, order, persuade, help, cause, remind, leave, teach, would like.

Present progressive Tense.

We use the present progressive to talk about things which are happening now.

Positive and Negative.

I am

He

She

It

is (not)

+ing

writing

now.

We

You

They

are

Question.

am I
What is

he

she

it

+ ing

doing?

are

we

you

they

Spelling.

Go + ing = going type + ing = typing

talk + ing = talking write + ing = writing

short vowel + one consonant but long vowel + on consonant

begin + n + ing = beginning read + ing = reading

get + t + ing = getting feel + ing = feeling

1. . .

1 (I / wash / my hair) ...I'm not washing my hair..................................................

2 (it / snow) .....It is snowing................................................................................

3 (1/sit/on a chair) ..................................................................................................

4 (I/eat) ..................................................................................................................

5 (it / rain)...............................................................................................................

6 (I / learn / English) ..............................................................................................

7 (I / listen / to the radio) .......................................................................................

8 (the sun / shine) ...................................................................................................

9 (I / wear/ shoes) .................................................................................................

10 (I / smoke / a cigarette) ....................................................................................

11 (I/ read / a newspaper) ....................................................................................

2. 'What... doing?' .

1 (he) ...What is he doing......................... ? 3 (I) ................................................ ?

2 (they) What ................................... doing? 4 (your wife)................................... ?

3. 'Where ... going?'.

1 (we) ...Where are we going.............................................................................. ?

2 (those children) ................................................................................................. ?

3 (the girl with long hair) ..................................................................................... ?

4 (the man on the bicycle) .................................................................................... . ?

4. (Yes, I am / No, it isn't etc.).

1 Are you watching TV? ..No, I'm not......

2 Are you wearing shoes? .........................

3 Are you wearing a hat? ..........................

4 Is it raining? ..........................................

5 Are you eating something? ..........................................

6 Are you feeling well? ..................................................

7 Is the sun shining? .......................................................

8 Is your mother watching you? ......................................

6

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES

( )

1. Short adjectives (1syllable) ( )

adjective comparative superlative

( ) ( )

cheap +er = cheaper +est = cheapest

young +er = younger +est = youngest

short +er = shorter +est = shortest

wide +er = wider +est = widest

small +er =smaller +est = smallest

2.   Short adjective ending in one vowel + one consonant

( )

big +g +er = bigger +g +est = biggest

fat +t +er = fatter +t +est = fattest

slim +m+er = slimmer +m +est = slimmest

hot +t +er = hotter +t +est = hottest

thin +n +er = thinner +n +est = thinnest

3.   Adjectives ending in er, ow, etc (2 syllables) ( )

clever +er = cleverer +est = cleverest

narrow +er = narrower +est = narrowest

shallow +er = swallower +est = swallowest

4. Adjectives ending in y (2 syllables)

easy +ier = easier +iest = easiest

heavy +ier = heavier +iest = heaviest

early +ier = earlier +iest = earliest

funny +ier = funnier +iest = funniest

happy +ier = happier +iest = happiest

5    Adjectives ending on ous, ing, ful, ed ( 2 syllables) and long adjectives (3/4 syllables)

boring more boring most boring

famous more famous most famous

: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7


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