: ( )

modern more modern most modern

polite more polite most polite

tired more tired most tired

expensive more expensive most expensive

comfortable more comfortable most comfortable

6. Irregular adjectives

good better best

bad worse worst

far further furthest

much/many more most

little less least

7. As as, not as/so as

He is as rich as his brother.

Im as clever as my uncle.

Mary is not as/so nice as her sister.

Is the weather not so hot as this in New York?

8. The the

The more we learn, the more we know. , .

The sooner, the better. , .

9. Older than more expensive than

He is two years older than his brother.

My car is more expensive than his.

10. Its twice/three times/four times as long/light/heavy/high as

The road is twice as long as that one.

Some useful idioms of comparison:

As good as gold () As old as the hills ()

As busy as bee () As cold as ice ()

As changeable as weather ( )



We use the past tense to tell stories about the past. We also use it when the time when something happened is important ( ).

Past Indefinite :

1.    , , . Past indefinite , , . , . Past Indefinite , yesterday , last week , an hour ago , the other day , on Monday , in 1998 1998 , during the lesson ..

I spoke to him the other day. .

came at five o'clock. .

called when I was , .

at the Institute.

2. :

!eft the hotel, took a taxi ,

and drove to the theatre, .

When I arrived at the railway , station, I went to the booking- office and bought a ticket, .

3. , , :

Last winter I spent a lot of time in the library, .

Past Indefinite used [ju:sd] to:

Last winter I used to spend a lot of time in the library.

Past Indefinite Tense

1. Past Indefinite Tense ( to) -ed :

to live - I lived; to work - I worked; to expect - I expected.

-ed [d], [t] [id] :

) , ( d) [d]:

lived [livd] informed [i'nfo:md]

answered ['a:nsad] followed [foloud]

b) ( t) [t]:

helped [helpt], asked [a:skt], finished [fmifl]

c) d t [id]:

waited [weitid], intended [intendid], wanted [wantid]

Past Indefinite : to speak - I spoke [spouk], to begin - I began ; to sell - I sold [sould]; to lose - I lost [lost].

2. Past Indefinite Tense to do (did) ( to), :

Did I work? Did I speak?

Did he work? Did he speak?

3. Past Indefinite Tense to do (did), not , not :

I did not work. I did not speak.

He did not work. He did not speak.

4. - Past Indefinite Tense not :

Did I not work? Did you not work? Did he not work?

Regular verbs (堠 Irregular verbs (

) )

work+ed=worked be was,were

type+d=typed do - did

stop+p+ed=stopped have - had

stay+ed=stayed can - could

clean+ed=cleaned go - went

live+d=lived write - wrote

like+d=liked get - got

start+ed=started, etc. sell sold, etc.

Positive ( )

I/you/he/she/we/they worked in London in 1995.

I/you/he/she/we/they went to London in 1995.

Negative ( )

We use didnt + infinitive (without to) in all persons.

I/you/he/she/we/they didnt work in London in 1995.

I/you/he/she/we/they didnt go to London in 1995.

Yes/No questions Short answers

( 젠 ( )

Yes, No)

Did I/you/he/she/we/they work in London in 1995? Yes, I did./No I didnt.

Did I/you/he/she/we/they go to London in 1995? Yes, we did./No, we didnt.

Special questions ( , when, why, where, how etc.)

When did I/you/he/she/we/they work in London? I worked in London in 1995.

Where did I/you/he/she/we/they go in 1995? I went to London in 1995.

Time expressions

night weekend

Saturday morning

last week yesterday afternoon

month evening

year summer

In 1987, in May, two days ago, from till, all day long, the whole day


1.. .

a.   Yesterday he (go) to work by car.

b.   I (watch) television yesterday evening.

c.    He (write) a letter to Jane last week.

d.   The accident (happen) last Sunday afternoon.

e.    When I was a child, I (want) to be a judge.

f.    We (leave) home at 8.30 this morning.

g.   They (do) their shopping last Monday.

h.   Ann (take) photographs last Sunday.

2. , .

: I saw John but I didnt see Mary.

a.   They worked on Monday but they on Tuesday.

b.   We went to the shop but we to the bank.

c.    She had e pen but she a paper.

d.   Jack did Spanish at University but he English.

e.    I sent a letter to tom but I to Mike.

f.    She went to the post office but she to the hospital.

g.   I spoke English when I was a child but I French.

h.   I ate meat yesterday but I fish.

i.    He read a newspaper yesterday evening but he a magazine.

3. .

:. I watched TV last night. And you? Did you watch TV last night?

a.   I enjoyed the party. And you? .

b.   I had a good holiday. And you? .

c.    I got up early this morning. And you? .

d.   I slept well last night. And you? .

e.    I worked hard yesterday. And you? .

f.    I went to bed at eleven oclock yesterday. And you? .

g.   I saw Tom at the party. And you? .

h.   I sent three telegrams yesterday. And you? .

i.    I passed the exam yesterday. And you? .

4. , ( ) .

: (watch TV) I watched TV yesterday. I didnt watch TV yesterday.

a.   (get up before 7.30)

b.   (have a shower)

c.    (buy magazine)

d.   (speak English)

e.    (do an examination)

f.    (eat meat)

g.   (meet my friend)

5. .

: He went abroad . Where did he go?

a.   I met somebody. Who ?

b.   Henry arrived. What time ?

c.    She saw somebody. Who ?

d.   They wanted something. What ?

e.    The party finished. What time ?

f.    He went home early. Why ?

g.   We had dinner. What ?

h.   It cost a lot of money. How much ?

6. e .

-               Where were you yesterday morning?

-               I discussed a lot of problems with my manager. And you?

-               I saw many interesting things yesterday.

-               Did you buy any postcards?

-               Paul had an appointment at 11 oclock with Mr. Brown.

-               No, he didnt have an appointment at 11 oclock with Mr. Brown. He had an appointment with Mr. White.


7. , :

a.   What did you have for breakfast yesterday?

b.   Did you enjoy your breakfast?

c.    What did you do after breakfast?

dDid you go to work?

8. .

: When did you last have a holiday? - Last July.

a.   see a video

b.   go shopping

c.    give someone a present

d.   take a photograph

e.    send a letter

f.    see a friend

g.   have a dinner at a restaurant

h.   lose something

i.    go abroad

j.    stay away from classes

k.   tell a lie

l.    discuss a difficult problem with you friend

m.  buy a coat

n.   get up late in the morning

o.   be late to work

p.   make a phone call

q.   pay a bill

r.    cash a cheque

9.. , .

: I could ride a bike when I was five.

10. , .

: I couldnt use a computer when I was five.

Present Perfect

( )

We use the present perfect tense for an action in the past with a result now ( , , ).

We use the present perfect with ever, never, already, just yet, recently, for since, etc.

have/has + past participle of the verb

Positive ( )

I/we/you/they have done/finished

He/she/it has done/finished

Negative ( )

I/we/you/they have not (havent) done/finished

He/she/it has not (hasnt) done/finished

Question ()

Have I/we/you/they done/finished?

Has he/she/it done/finished?


I have just done my work.

I havent done my work yet.

He has travelled all over the world.

They have already come home.

Irregulars ( )

Base form Past Simple Past participle

Be was/were been

Become became become

Begin began begun

Build built built

Can could been able

Come came come

Cost cost cost

Do did done

Get got got

Go went gone

Have had had

Know knew known

Learn learnt learnt

Make made made

Read read read

Say said said

Take took taken

Write wrote written


Have got = Have ( , ).

have got . have got .

Ive got a bad cold.

I had a bad cold last week.

have got have

Positive Positive

I have got some money I have some money

You have got some money You have some money

We have got some money We have some money

They have got some money They have some money

He has got some money He has some money

She has got some money She has some money

It has got some money It has some money

Negative Negative

I havent got any money I dont have any money

You havent got any money You dont have any money

We havent got any money We dont have any money

They havent got any money They dont have any money

He hasnt got any money He doesnt have any money

She hasnt got any money She doesnt have any money

It hasnt got any money It doesnt have any money

Questions Questions

Have I got any money? Do I have any money?

Have you got any money? Do you have any money?

Have we got any money? Do we have any money?

Have they got any money? Do they have any money?

Has he got any money? Does he have any money?

Has she got any money? Does she have any money?

Has it got any money? Does it have any money?

How much money have you got? How much money do you have?

How many credit cards have I got? How many credit cards do I have?

Short answers Short answers

Yes, I have./ No, I havent. Yes, I do./ No I dont.

Yes, she has./ No, she hasnt. Yes, she does./ No, she doesnt.


Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense

( )

, - , , , .

to be ing .


He is sleeping now. He was sleeping when I came.

. , .

I am reading now. I was reading when he phoned.

. , .

They are having dinner now. They were having dinner at 7 last night. . 7 .

was (were).


He was watching TV when she came.

Was he watching TV when she came?

He was not watching TV when she came.

What was he doing when she came?

What was he watching when she came?


1.   :

Steve usually cleans his suit on Saturdays.

(when Jeff phoned)

Was Steve cleaning his suit when Jeff phoned?

1.   Ann usually cooks dinner at 7 oclock. (when Peter phoned)

2.   Jill usually goes to the library every evening. ( when we saw her)

3.   Liz plays the violin every day.( when mother came home)

4.   Mr Brown reads his newspaper after supper. (when the telephone rang)

5.   She usually does her homework in the afternoon. ( when Ann opened the door)

6.   Jane sometimes drinks coffee with Mike. ( when her husband saw them)

2. .

Thomas is a student. He's staying with the Taylors, an English family.

Thomas: Hello, Mrs Taylor. Can you help me? I'm doing my homework and I can't understand this word.

Mrs Taytor: Which one? Oh... thats difficult. I can't help you now.... I'm watching something...

Thomas: Oh? What are you watching?

Mrs Taylor: I'm watching a cowboy film.

Thomas: Can Mr Taylor help me?

Mrs Taylor: No, he can't now, Thomas. He's reading.

Thomas: What's he reading?

Mrs Taytor: He's reading a magazine.

Thomas: What about Kate?

Mrs Taylor: Oh, she can't help you now... she's phoning someone.

Thomas: Oh? Who's she phoning?

Mrs Taylor: She's phoning her boyfriend... you're asking a lot of questions tonight, Thomas!

Thomas: Am I?... Well,

I am practicing my English!

, , .( .)

: When Thomas asked Mrs Taylor to help him, she was watching a cowboy film.

3. , 7 .

What are Jill and John doing?- They are playing tennis.

1. Mr Smith/his car

2. Mary/a letter

3. Mr and Mrs Jones/television

4. Bob/a letter

5. Arthur and Mike/ a box

6. Mrs Brown/the dishes

7. Tony/beer











8 oclock


midnight etc.

I start work at 8 oclock.

The shops close at 5.30 p.m.



25 April

New years Day

Goodbye! See you on Friday.

I dont work on Sundays.

The concert is on 22 November.

- In

April / June

1985 / 1750

(the) summer / spring

Im going on holiday in October.

Jill left school in 1995.

The garden is lovely in spring


at the weekend

at night

at Christmas /Easter

at the end of ...

at the moment

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening


on Monday morning

on Friday evening, etc.

Are you going away at the weekend?

-    I cant sleep at night.

-    In Britain children get presents at Christmas.

-    Im going on holiday at the end of October.

-    Are you busy at the moment?

-    I always feel good in the morning.

-    Do you often go out in the evening?

-    Im meeting Jill on Monday morning.

: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7




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